Classified Encyclopedia Of Chess Variants

Ref: b1680

Contents
Introduction to the second edition 13
Author’s acknowledgements 16
Editor’s acknowledgements 17
Warning regarding proprietary games 18
Part 1 Games using an ordinary board and men 19
1 Two or more moves at a time 21
1.1 Two moves at a turn, intermediate check observed 21
1.2 Two moves at a turn, intermediate check ignored 24
1.3 Two moves against one 25
1.4 Three to ten moves at a turn 26
1.5 One more move each time 28
1.6 Every man can move 32
1.7 Other kinds of multiple movement 32
2 Games with concealed information 33
2.1 Games with an umpire, both sides blind 33
2.2 Games with an umpire, one side only blind 38
2.3 Games without an umpire 38
3 Unorthodox ways of capturing 40
3.1 Capture by attacking 40
3.2 Squares with known or hidden dangers 41
3.3 Destruction of men on nearby squares 41
3.4 Capture by moving as the target man 42
3.5 Other forms of capture 42
3.6 Immobilization 44
3.7 Capture of own men 45
3.8 Checking of own king 45
4 Compulsions and restrictions 46
4.1 Compulsions and restrictions relating to check 46
4.2 Compulsions and restrictions relating to capture 46
4.3 Restrictions on the men able to move 47
4.4 Walls, obstacles, and missing squares 48
4.5 Lines to be crossed 49
4.6 Other compulsions and restrictions 50
6 List of contents
Games using an ordinary board and men (continued)
5 Introduction of new or captured men during play 52
5.1 Men are held or placed in reserve, and may be introduced during play 52
5.2 A captured man changes sides, and may be reintroduced by its captor 53
5.3 A captured man may be recovered by its owner 54
5.4 A captured man is replaced at once 55
5.5 A captured man lies low, and re-emerges when the capturing man has
moved on 56
5.6 Other reintroductions of captured men 57
6 Unorthodox pawn properties and powers 58
6.1 Historical rules regarding promotion 58
6.2 Other changes affecting promotion 58
6.3 Move diagonally, capture straight 58
6.4 Other changes affecting forward movement 60
6.5 Sideways and backwards movement 60
7 Moving the opponent’s men 61
7.1 Moving an opponent’s man instead of one’s own 61
7.2 Rejecting, choosing, or altering the opponent’s last move 61
7.3 Making a move for each side 62
8 Transporting and teleporting 65
8.1 Selective transport of individual pieces 65
8.2 Pushing and pulling 66
8.3 Gravitational and magnetic effects 67
8.4 Other displacements within the board 68
8.5 Physical displacement of part of the board 69
8.6 Unorthodoxy relating to castling 70
8.7 Other forced movements 70
9 Games using unorthodox initial arrays 71
9.1 The opposing arrays mirror each other vertically 71
9.2 The opposing arrays mirror each other diametrally 73
9.3 The opposing arrays do not mirror each other 74
9.4 The initial position is partly or wholly free 76
List of contents 7
Games using an ordinary board and men (continued)
10 Different objectives of play 81
10.1 Capturing or baring the king 81
10.2 Changed or multiple kings 81
10.3 Other objectives based on mate, check, or stalemate 82
10.4 Wiping out the opponent’s men 83
10.5 Wiping out all the men of a kind 84
10.6 Playing for material gain 84
10.7 Reaching a fixed goal 84
10.8 Playing to exhaust the available resources 85
10.9 Playing to lose 85
10.10 Games in which the two sides have different objectives 90
10.11 Solo games 90
10.12 Other games 91
11 Multiple boards 93
11.1 Two boards 93
11.2 Three boards 95
11.3 More than three boards 96
12 Miscellanea 97
12.1 Multiple square occupancy 97
12.2 Merging of squares into regions 97
12.3 Men changing sides other than by capture 98
12.4 Men automatically added or removed during play 98
12.5 Passing or retracting a move 99
12.6 Simultaneous movement 99
12.7 Exploitation of coordinate squares 100
12.8 Changes to the rules during play 102
12.9 Other external influences on the play 102
12.10 Puzzles centred around chess games 104
12.11 Unorthodoxy in context or presentation 104
Part 2 Other games using square lattice boards 109
13 Larger and smaller boards 111
13.1 Larger square boards 111
13.2 Smaller square boards 112
13.3 Rectangular boards 113
13.4 Other square lattice boards 115
13.5 Unbounded boards 117
13.6 Creating or modifying the board during play 117
8 List of contents
Other games using square lattice boards (continued)
14 New pieces (1) : Combination pieces 120
14.1 Pieces with added knight movement 120
14.2 Rook and bishop combinations 125
14.3 Other combinations 126
14.4 Move as one piece, capture as another 126
15 New pieces (2) : Pieces with limited range 128
15.1 Pieces which can move only one square 128
15.2 Pieces which can move up to two squares 129
15.3 Pieces which can move up to three squares 132
15.4 Pieces which can move four or more squares 135
16 New pieces (3) : Pieces with unlimited range 138
16.1 Pieces with orthogonal or diagonal movement, obstructions respected 138
16.2 Pieces with oblique movement, obstructions respected 139
16.3 Reflecting pieces 140
16.4 Other pieces which change direction in mid-move 142
16.5 Pieces which ignore obstacles 143
16.6 Pieces which exploit obstacles 144
16.7 Pieces which move normally but must jump to capture 145
17 Unorthodoxy relating to capture 147
17.1 Capture by leaping over the target piece 147
17.2 Capture by attacking 149
17.3 Capture by moving as the target piece 151
17.4 Destruction of men on nearby squares 151
17.5 Subversion and treachery 153
17.6 Other forms of capture 153
17.7 Immobilization 154
17.8 Interchange of pieces 154
17.9 Multiple forms of capture 155
17.10 Immunity from capture 158
17.11 Captured men change sides and can be re-entered 159
17.12 Captured men can be recovered by their owners 159
18 Mutation games 161
18.1 Taking the power of a captured piece 161
18.2 Promotion and demotion 162
18.3 Combination and separation 165
18.4 Movement dependent on square occupied 167
18.5 Relay games 169
18.6 Other mutations 172
List of contents 9
Other games using square lattice boards (continued)
19 Changed or multiple kings 175
19.1 Kings with unorthodox powers of movement 175
19.2 Substitute kings 176
19.3 Concealed kings 177
19.4 Kings of other kinds 177
19.5 Kings created in play 177
19.6 Multiple kings present from the outset 179
19.7 Anti-kings 183
20 Games presented as families 184
20.1 The players choose jointly 184
20.2 The players choose independently 186
21 Miscellanea 188
21.1 One-dimensional boards 188
21.2 Games with hidden information 189
21.3 Directional pieces 189
21.4 Other unorthodox pieces 191
21.5 Twinned pieces 191
21.6 Men created during play 192
21.7 Men belonging to both sides 192
21.8 Walls and obstacles 193
21.9 Square-swallowing 194
21.10 Use of the intersection points 195
21.11 Games on two or more boards 195
21.12 Other games 197
Part 3 Boards of other kinds 201
22 Boards based on hexagons 203
22.1 Hexagonally symmetric boards with a forward rook move 203
22.2 Other hexagonal boards with a forward rook move 207
22.3 Rectangular and diamond-shaped boards with a forward rook move 208
22.4 Boards with a lateral rook move 209
22.5 Other boards based on hexagons 212
23 Other planar boards 213
23.1 Boards based on triangles 213
23.2 Boards based on diamonds 214
23.3 Boards based on rectangles 215
23.4 Boards containing cells of more than one shape 215
23.5 Circular boards 216
23.6 Spiral and figure-of-eight boards 219
23.7 Infinite and infinitely divisible boards 220
23.8 Boards with transport mechanisms 220
10 List of contents
Boards of other kinds (continued)
24 Cylindrical, toroidal, and spherical boards 221
24.1 Cylindrical boards 221
24.2 Toroidal boards 222
24.3 Spherical boards 223
25 Boards with three and more dimensions 225
25.1 Square boards on two levels 225
25.2 Square boards on three levels 226
25.3 Square boards on four levels 228
25.4 Square boards on five levels 229
25.5 Square boards on six levels 229
25.6 Square boards on seven or eight levels 230
25.7 Square boards on more than eight levels 232
25.8 Other boards with three dimensions 232
25.9 Three-dimensional games with double moves 233
25.10 Games in more than three dimensions 234
Part 4 Regional and historical games 237
26 The Near East, Europe, Africa 239
26.1 The thread leading to modern chess 239
26.2 Other games played in the Near East 243
26.3 Other games played in Europe 245
26.4 Africa 247
27 China, Korea, Vietnam 248
27.1 Xiangqi 248
27.2 Indigenous and regional variants 249
27.3 Modern non-indigenous variants 251
28 Japan 252
28.1 Shogi 252
28.2 Historical shogi variants 254
28.3 Modern variants using the normal board 258
28.4 Modern variants using smaller square or rectangular boards 259
28.5 Variants using non-rectangular boards 260
28.6 Combination games 261
29 India and the rest of Asia 262
29.1 Indian chess on the 8x8 board 262
29.2 Indian games on larger boards 264
29.3 Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia 266
29.4 Malaysia and Indonesia 270
29.5 Central Asia and Tibet 270
List of contents 11
Part 5 Games using dice and cards 275
30 Dice games 277
30.1 Using dice to determine the man to be moved 277
30.2 Other uses of thrown dice 278
30.3 Using dice other than by throwing 280
31 Card games 281
31.1 Games using cards to represent chessmen 281
31.2 Games using cards to influence play 282
31.3 Combination games 284
31.4 Karten Schach 284
Part 6 Games with non-chess objectives 289
32 Playing to reach a >xed goal 291
32.1 Fixed goals in enemy territory 291
32.2 Fixed goals in neutral territory 297
32.3 Football games 299
33 Other objectives of play 301
33.1 Blocking and annihilation : games with jump captures 301
33.2 Blocking and annihilation : other games 302
33.3 Point scoring 303
33.4 Achieving a pattern or alignment 304
33.5 Other objectives 305
33.6 Games with different objectives for each side 306
33.7 Games of unclear or unknown nature 307
Part 7 Partnership and team games 309
34 Games using a single square or rectangular board 311
34.1 Classical Indian four-player games 311
34.2 Modern games using a single 8x8 board 312
34.3 Two or more 8x8 boards joined as one 314
34.4 Other square or rectangular boards 315
35 Games using non-rectangular boards 317
35.1 Games using a normal 8x8 board with extensions 317
35.2 Games using other square boards with extensions 322
35.3 Games using a round board 323
35.4 Games using other boards 324
12 List of contents
Partnership and team games (continued)
36 Games using more than one board 326
36.1 Four players, two boards 326
36.2 Four players, four boards 327
36.3 More than four players 327
Part 8 Every man for himself 331
37 Games for three 333
37.1 Rotationally symmetric boards based on triangles 333
37.2 Rotationally symmetric boards based on hexagons 334
37.3 Rotationally symmetric boards based on quadrilaterals 336
37.4 Circular boards 338
37.5 Boards in three dimensions 339
37.6 Boards without rotational symmetry 339
37.7 Games in which the players have different roles 341
38 Games for four or more 342
38.1 Games based on capturing the king, square or rectangular board 342
38.2 Games based on capturing the king, hexagonal board 344
38.3 Games based on capturing the king, circular board 345
38.4 Games based on capturing the king, board with extensions 346
38.5 Games based on capturing the king, planar board of other or
unknown shape 347
38.6 Games based on capturing the king, three-dimensional board 349
38.7 Annihilation games 349
38.8 Games to reach a goal in the opponent’s territory 350
38.9 Games to reach a goal in neutral territory 350
38.10 Point-scoring games 353
38.11 Games in which the players have different roles 354
38.12 Divinatory games 354
38.13 Games of unclear nature 355
Appendix 359
Notes on principal sources 367
Index 369